Historic Plaques and Markers - North
Niagara Parks encompasses a unique landscape that is rich in historical and natural significance. Over 100 monuments and plaques that identify the landmarks, events and persons important to the history of the region are placed along the Niagara Parkway, a roadway that follows the Niagara River through Niagara Parks from Fort Erie north to Niagara-on-the-Lake on the shores of Lake Ontario. Any visit to Niagara Parks, whether driving leisurely along the Parkway or walking or cycling the 56-km (35 mi) Niagara River Recreation Trail, can be enriched by stopping to read and study the markers and memorials along the way. The scenic trip is not only beautiful, but entertaining and educational as well.
The following inventory has been created by Niagara Parks staff and may not be complete. Most of the following transcriptions provide a short description of the site location. Photographs may be available upon request at firstname.lastname@example.org
Following are some of the plaques you can discover traveling along the Niagara Parkway or the Niagara River Recreation Trail, catalogued from Niagara-on-the-Lake in the north to Niagara Falls. Click here or at the bottom of this page list to move to the inventory of plaques south from Niagara Falls to Fort Erie.
John Graves Simcoe 1752 - 1806 (bronze plaque left of front entrance to Navy Hall)
"Simcoe was born in Northamptonshire and educated at Oxford. He joined the British Army in 1771 and from 1777 to 1781 he commanded the Queen's Rangers, a loyalist corps in America. After the Loyalists influx had led to the creation of a separate province of Upper Canada in 1791, Simcoe was named its first lieutenant-governor. During his five years in office, the province's basically British and monarchial character and institutions took shape. After he left Canada in 1796, he held a succession of military and colonial offices and died in Exeter shortly after being appointed commander-in-chief for India. Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Government of Canada 1976."
John Graves Simcoe, First Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada 1791-1796
"Here at Niagara on September 17, 1792, he presided over the first representative assembly of this province. His genius foresaw the greatness of this country and he threw himself into its building with ardour and enthusiasm. By his exalted aims, his conspicuous integrity, his tireless industry and unflagging fortitude, he brought courage to the hearts of the early settlers and led them to carve a civilization out of the wilderness. In all this he was unfailingly helped by his wife Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim who like her husband has left the impress of her spirit and her name on the letters and locations of this province. Her diaries and her drawings give an authentic record of the life of the period and the aspect of the land - Non Bibi Sed Patriae - Not For Self But For Country. Memorial erected by The Niagara Parks Commission in 1952."
Simcoe Memorial (in front of Navy Hall)
The memorial to Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe and Mrs. Simcoe was unveiled on July 29, 1953 by the Honourable Leslie M. Frost, Premier of Ontario. The memorial was commissioned by The Niagara Parks Commission and was designed and sculpted by Elizabeth Wyn Wood.
The Early Years (article displayed in front of Navy Hall)
"Navy Hall consisted of a small shipyard, storehouse, residences and docks which served as a depot for local supplies. It also served as a trans-shipment point for the posts on the Upper Great Lakes. From 1792-1796 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe had offices and his residence in the complex. The buildings were later converted to military use until destroyed in American artillery fire during the War of 1812."
The Facilities (article displayed in front of Navy Hall)
"The facilities of this strategic location have served British and later Canadian troops stationed at Niagara from 1765 to 1920. Environment Canada, Canadian Park Service"
Later Years - Inoculation at Old Navy Hall, Niagara Camp (article displayed in front of Navy Hall)
"Canadian soldiers at Camp Niagara preparing for overseas service during World War I. Immediately after the War of 1812, a new wooden storehouse was built on this site. It was converted into barracks for British troops during the border troubles of 1838. The building remained in use until the 20th century serving as a medical commissary for Canadian troops during World War I. During the 1930s it was moved to the location in front of you by the Niagara Parks Commission and encased in stone."
"Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor John G. Simcoe in 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. These in turn were re-taken by the British in December 1813. In 1814 Ft George was described as tumbling into ruins and ordered abandoned. The present works are a re-construction done in 1937-40 and represent the fort as it was in 1799-1813. Only the magazine of the original fort remains. Monuments Board of Canada, Government of Canada"
"There was a prevailing sense of insecurity on the Niagara Frontier in the closing months of 1811 and the early months of 1812. War with the United States seemed inevitable and military and civilians alike were anxiously preparing for it. War did come and before it ended Fort George was completely destroyed. Fort George was reconstructed between 1937-40 on the foundations of the original."
(The previous markers are maintained by the staff of Fort George, an historic site owned and operated by the Canadian government. The Niagara Parks Commission, a self-sufficient agency of the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, administers all of the following markers, at no cost to the public.)
Capture of Fort Niagara 1813 (McFarland Park near East-West Line)
"In the early morning of December 19th, 1813, a force under John Murray consisting of detachments of the 100th and the 41st regiments, Royal Scots, Royal Artillery and Canadian Militia embarked in bateaux at the foot of this ravine, crossing silently to a point above Youngstown, New York, they attacked Fort Niagara killing or capturing its American garrison. Erected by Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board"
McFarland House 1800 (McFarland Park, 15927 Niagara Parkway)
"This Georgian style house was built in 1800 by John McFarland (1757-1815) and his sons, on land granted by the Crown. It is one of the oldest surviving structures in the Niagara district. During the War of 1812 it was used as a hospital by both British and American forces and a British battery, located behind the house, protected the river. In 1813, John McFarland was taken prisoner by the Americans following their capture of Fort George. When he returned in 1815, much of his property had been destroyed and the house badly damaged. The home was repaired and remained in the McFarland family for several generations. Ontario Heritage Trust, an agency of the Government of Ontario"
Thomas Moore (1779 - 1852) (plaque on a boulder on east side of Parkway south of McFarland House)
"One of Ireland's best loved and renowned poets and lyricists, Thomas Moore visited Niagara during July 1804. Captivated by the scenic splendour of the area and as guest of Col. Isaac Brock, Commander at Fort George, Moore frequently found rest and creative inspiration under a large Oak tree here on the McFarland farm. His poems and other writings about Ontario helped to give the Irish and British a better picture of this region and subsequently, played a role in encouraging emigration to Canada. "And I said, if there is peace to be found in the world, a heart that is humble might find it here". Erected July 2004 by Niagara Parks.
Joseph-Genevieve Comte de Puisaye (15586 Niagara Parkway)
"Soldier, politician, diplomatist and colonizer de Puisaye was born in Martagne-en-perche, France, about 1755 and enlisted in the French army at 18. Elected to the Estates-General 1789, he supported reform but alarmed by the course of the revolution, later organized resistance on behalf of the Royalists. Outlawed he sought refuge in England and in 1795 as lieutenant-general led an ill-fated expedition to Quiberon, Brittany. Three years later with some forty other emigres, he arrived in Upper Canada and established a short-lived settlement in Markham-Vaughan region. In 1799 he purchased a farm here on which he lived until he moved to England in 1802 There he died in 1827."
Erected by the Archeological and Archives of Ontario
Department of Public Record and Archives of Ontario
Comte de Puisaye (stone marker on west side of Parkway near Line 2)
"The building near here is half of that built by the Count De Puisaye a French refugee about 1800. Placed by the Niagara Historical Society in 1915."
The Field House (near 15276 Niagara Parkway)
"One of the oldest brick houses in Ontario, this handsome Georgian structure was built about 1800. Originally a farm house, it was the home of Gilbert Field (1765-1815), a United Empire Loyalist who was in possession of the land by 1790. During the War of 1812 the house was used by British forces and was subjected to a brief bombardment from an American battery. Thought damaged it was one of few houses in the area to survive the hostilities. It remained in the Field family until about 1925, after which it passed through various hands. In 1968 the Ontario Heritage Foundation acquired the property to ensure its continued preservation and twelve years later the Field House was returned to private ownership with a projective covenant. Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Minister of Culture and Communications"
Brown's Point (marker on Trail 2 miles north of Queenston)
"Brown's Inn was located here. Both the Canadian York Militia and the American army bivouacked near here on separate occasions during the War of 1812. Adam Brown later added a store to his inn and built a wharf on the river shore below where sailing ships loaded settlers' produced potash and lime destined for Montreal and overseas. Erected by the Niagara Parks Commission"
Brown's Point (stone marker on trail 2 miles north of Queenston)
"Here General Sir Isaac Brock called out on his way to Queenston Heights 13 October 1812, "Push On York Volunteers". Stone marker placed by the Niagara Historical Society in 1915."
Vrooman's Battery (National Historic Site - Parkway near 14759 Niagara River Parkway, Queenston)
"Manned by Captain Samuel Hatt's 5th Lincoln Militia Regiment and a small party of Lincoln Militia Artillery under Lieutenant John Ball, and consisting of a 24 pounder cannon mounted within a crescent-shaped earthwork, this battery was engaged in the Battle of Queenston Heights on the 13th October, 1812. Commanding the Niagara River, its continuous fire harassed the Americans crossing from Lewiston, provided cover for the British when they were first repulsed from the heights and supported later attempts to regain them.
Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Government of Canada 1929."
VILLAGE OF QUEENSTON
Major John Richardson 1796-1852 (on grounds of Laura Secord Elementary School)
"This pioneer historian, author and soldier was born in Queenston. His family moved to Amherstburg about 1802 and at the outbreak of the War of 1812 Richardson joined the British army. Retired at half-pay in London, England, he published the epic poem "Tecumseh" and the celebrated historical novel "Wacousta" which established his literary reputation. In 1838 Richardson returned to Upper Canada where he published two weekly newspapers, the New Era 1841-42 and the Canadian Loyalist 1844. His later works "Eight Years in Canada" and "The War of 1812" provided invaluable historical information. In 1848 he moved to New York City where he died in poverty. Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board 1960."
Queenston Baptist Church
"In 1808 the Reverend Elkanah Holmes, a missionary from the United States, had organized the first Baptist congregation in Queenston. Following the War of 1812 the congregation declined, was recognized in 1831 and between 1842-45 erected this rough-cut limestone structure as its church. It is an early and interesting example of a Gothic revival style in this province. The church had closed by 1918 and in 1928 was sold to the Women's Institute which occupied the building until 1954. In 1970 it was acquired by Dr. Djamal Afrukhteh who donated it to the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. After a fund-rising campaign by the Queenston Community Association the building was removed and in December 1972 was officially opened as the Queenston Library and Community Centre. Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board, Ministry of Colleges and Universities"
The Founding of Queenston (East side of Queenston Street just north of Laura Secord Homestead)
"Following the loss after the American Revolution of the Niagara River's east bank, a new portage around Niagara Falls was established in the 1780s with Queenston its northern terminus. Wharves, storehouses and a blockhouse were built. Robert Hamilton, a prominent merchant, considered the village's founder, operated a thriving trans-shipment business. Known as the lower landing, it was named Queenston by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe. During the War of 1812 the village was badly damaged. Here lived such well-known figures as Laura Secord and William Lyon Mackenzie. Despite loss of commerce following the opening of the Welland Canal in 1829, Queenston later served as a terminus for the province's first horse-drawn railway. Queenston was incorporated into the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake in 1970. Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board, Ministry of Colleges and Universities"
Home of Laura Ingersoll Secord (marker on east side of Secord property)
"This stone marker was placed in 1901 by the Women's Literary Club of St. Catharines to honour Laura Secord and was rededicated in 1972 by members of the Club on the occasion of their 80th annual pilgrimage."
Laura Ingersoll Secord 1775-1868 (plaque in front of Homestead )
"Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Laura Ingersoll came to Upper Canada with her father in 1795 and settled in this area. About two years later she married James Secord, a United Empire Loyalist and within seven years they had moved to this site from nearby St. David's. From here during the War of 1812 Laura set out on an arduous 19 mile journey to warn the local British commander, Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon, of an impending American attack. The courage and tenacity displayed on this occasion in June, 1813, places her in the forefront of the province's heroines. Mrs. Secord's house, a simple frame building, was restored in 1971-72 and remains as a memorial to this exceptional act of patriotism. Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board, Archives of Ontario"
Laura Secord Homestead, Queenston (Red and Brass Plaque freestanding, just off parking lot next to Welcome Center)
The celebrated heroine of the war of 1812 is a renowned figure in Canadian History. Determined to warn the British of an impending attack on Beaver Dams, Secord set out from her home on June 22, 1813, on a dangerous mission. She traveled alone for over 30 kilometers, behind enemy lines, struggling to make it to the De Cew farmhouse, where she informed Lieutenant Fitzgibbon about the American plan. Later in the 19th century, a first generation of women historians championed Secord's courageous deed with the goal of uncovering and popularizing women's contributions to the history of Canada.
Indians at Queenston Heights, October 13, 1812 (Plaque on a granite boulder, west of Brock's Cenotaph, at the base of the Heights on Queenston Street)
"Warriors of the Six Nations of Iroquois, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscaroras, mainly from the Grand River, fought as allies of the British in this historic battle with the Americans. Speaking distinctive dialects and with different religious beliefs, these Indians were drawn together for the battle by John Norton. A resourceful and courageous commander, Norton, a man of Cherokee and Scottish ancestry, was a Mohawk (Teyoninhokawawen) by adoption. With John Brant (Ahyouwaeghs), the youngest son of Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) and John Bearfoot, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, the Iroquois fought for their own survival as a people and in support of the British. Erected by the Niagara Parks Commission and the Queenston Community Association with the assistance of the Ontario Ministry of Culture and Recreation October 12, 1980"
Brock's Cenotaph (North side)
"Near the spot Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.C.B., Provisional Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, fell on the 13th of October, 1812, while advancing to repel the invading enemy."
Brock's Cenotaph (South side)
"This cenotaph was dedicated by the Prince of Wales (future King Edward VII) His Royal Highness Albert Edward on the 18th September, 1860."
Alfred (Bronze statue mounted on a sandstone base and in a glass case, installed October 3, 1976 east of the cenotaph).
"Early on the morning of October 13, 1812, after galloping seven miles from Fort George, General Brock tethered his grey horse, Alfred, here in the Village of Queenston in order to lead a charge on foot to repel the invading enemy. Brock was killed leading the attack. Colonel Macdonell then took command until General Sheaffe could arrive from Fort George with reinforcements. Macdonnell rode Alfred to lead another charge. He was mortally wounded and Alfred was killed, part of the price of saving Canada on that fateful day. (They also serve who only stand and wait.) Presented to The Niagara Parks Commission by Mr. and Mrs. Steward G. Bennett. Ralph Sketch sculptor. 1976"
The Colonial Advocate (in front of Mackenzie House )
"This influential journal of radical reform was first published on May 18, 1824, at Queenston by William Lyon Mackenzie. A native of Scotland, Mackenzie had emigrated to Upper Canada in 1820 and three years later settled here and opened a general store. Within a year he had established a printing office in his home on this site but in November 1824 moved to York (Toronto). Because of Mackenzie's frequent attacks on the Family Compact, supporters of this group raided the Colonial Advocate offices and damaged the press on June 18, 1826. The courts awarded Mackenzie damages and he resumed publication. Mackenzie severed his connection with the paper, now called The Advocate, in 1834. The last issue appeared that November. Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board, Ministry of Colleges and Universities 1974"
Mackenzie Printery (Stone marker at entrance to house)
"Home of William Lyon Mackenzie, Birthplace of Responsible Government 1823-1824."
QUEENSTON HEIGHTS PARK
Roy Terrace Birthplace of the Falls (in front of the ornamental entrance gates to the Park)
"Roy Terrace and Eldridge Terrace, the niche visible on the U.S. side of the same height, mark the level of glacial Lake Iroquois (Lake Ontario). When the Wisconsin glacier receded about 12 thousand years ago, the Falls of Niagara were born here, water falling 11 metres (35 feet) over the escarpment from a small Lake Erie into Lake Iroquois. Erected by the Niagara Parks Commission."
The Niagara Escarpment (river side of Parkway near escarpment Scenic Lookout )
"Queenston Heights is part of the Niagara Escarpment, a height of land which extends 725 kilometres across Ontario from Niagara Falls to Manitoulin Island. Over 430 million years ago, a shallow tropical sea covered most of central North America. Sediments and coral reef on the seabed were compressed into dolomite, a hard type of limestone which was more resistant to erosion than the bedrock of adjacent lands after the water retreated. The cliffs of the escarpment are the exposed floor of the ancient sea. The escarpment's rugged terrain, home to a wide variety of plants and wildlife, forms a natural corridor through both urban and rural areas. In 1990, the United Nations designated the Niagara Escarpment a World Biosphere Reserve. Ontario Heritage Foundation. Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation" (text also in French)
Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe (Sculpture by Ralph Sketch, in foyer of Queenston Heights Restaurant)
"The Canada-United States border was not always as friendly as it is today. Early on the morning of October 13, 1812, American troops crossed the Niagara River from Lewiston. They established a strong position on the heights above Queenston. General Brock led frontal attacks to dislodge the invaders. He was killed during the morning. The attacks gained time for General Sheaffe to bring the main body of troops from Fort George. He marched them up the Niagara Escarpment between Queenston and St. David's. In the late afternoon, the powerful flank attack drove the Americans back across the river. As many prisoners were taken as the total of the British and Canadian force. Niagara Parks Commission 1988."
Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe (1763-1851) (Plaque at Brock's Monument )
"On October 13, 1812, following Isaac Brock's death in a preceding assault, Major-General Sheaffe assumed command and led a successful attack which dislodged an invading American force from Queenston Heights. Born in Boston, Mass., Sheaffe was commissioned in the British army in 1778 and fought in the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Arriving in Upper Canada in 1812, he served as administrator of the province 1812-13 and returned to England in the latter year. He was created a baronet in 1813, attained the rank of general in 1838 and died in Edinburgh, Scotland. Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board 1959"
The Battle of Queenston Heights (National Historic Site - Brock's Monument at the lookout)
"The village below you and the heights on which you are standing were the stage for the famous battle of Queenston Heights. It took place during the Anglo-American conflict 1812-1815 known as the War of 1812. During the early morning hours of October 13, 1812 an American invasion force camped at Lewiston crossed the Niagara River and gained control of the heights of Queenston. After many hours of fierce combat, they were crushed by a combined force of British regulars, Canadian militia and Indian warriors. This victory had a great significance. It prevented for sometime the Americans from establishing a foothold in Canada and it inspired confidence in Canadians that they could defend an immense territory despite their meagre human and material resources. Parks Canada"
The Battle of Queenston Heights (on the wall around the monument)
"In the early morning of 13 October 1812, American troops under Major-General Stephen Van Rensellaer crossed the Niagara River and took possession of Queenston Heights. Major-General Isaac Brock hurried from Fort George to lead a small force against the invaders and was killed in an attempt to regain the heights. In the afternoon, Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe with his force of British regulars, militia and Indians from Fort George strengthened by reinforcements from Chippawa, took the hill from the west flank, capturing 958 prisoners. This celebrated victory ended the American offensive of 1812. Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Government of Canada" (text also in French)
Battle of Queenston Heights (Engraving on plaque)
"This battle ended in a complete Victory on the part of the British, having captured 927 men, killed or wounded about 500. Taken 1400 Stand of Arms, a six pounder and a stand of Colours."
Walking Tour of Brock's Monument (5 station, self-guided tour on the battlefield presented by Parks Canada)
Attack (to the left of Laura Secord's monument)
"If you go to the lookout behind the Laura Secord monument you will see across the river and slightly to your right the area where a huge American force assembled for the invasion of Canada. In the early hours of October 13, 1812, six hundred American soldiers crossed the river and landed on the Canadian shore somewhere above the present docks. Queenston was chosen as the target because it was an important point on the British supply line and because the only other possible landing spot was the heavily fortified area around Fort George. The invaders were quickly pinned down on the landing area by heavy British gunfire. British General Isaac Brock hastened from Fort George at the sound of the cannons firing across the river. He quickly took charge sending for reinforcements."
A Treacherous River Cliff (across the Parkway from the Ornamental Entrance Gate).
"An unguarded trail up this steep cliff was the only route which the Americans had to the heights of Queenston. The trail was to your right but does not exist any longer. Trapped on the river shore by unrelenting gunfire, the Americans contemplated a desperate action: the ascent of this cliff. The British, positioned on a ledge between here and the Village of Queenston did not detect the movement and the attackers took the Heights by surprise. However, later in the battle this cliff became a cruel barrier between the Americans and safety on the other shore."
The Capture of the Redan and the Death of Brock (a short distance from Station 2 beside a cannon)
"On the river banks below here, the Americans were trapped. To the right the Americans scaled the river cliff and seized the Heights above. To the left the British held the Village of Queenston. A British 18-pounder cannon situated here within an earthwork called a "redan". On October 13, 1812, this cannon hindered the reinforcement of the American troops trapped below. Arriving from Fort George, Major-General Brock came here to direct the defence of Queenston and await reinforcements, however the small enemy detachment which had scaled the cliffs behind the redan made a surprise attack forcing the British to retreat into the village. Brock led two hundred men in a counter-attack during which he was mortally wounded. Another assault, led by Brock's aide de camp, John Macdonell, was repulsed by the Americans who were soon firmly in control of the Heights."
(Additional plaque located near Station 3)
"Near this spot Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, Attorney-General of Upper Canada, was mortally wounded 13th October, 1812. Erected by Lundy's Lane Historical Society 1906."
The Counter Offensive Takes Shape (on the slope directly above Mackenzie Printery and Newspaper Museum)
"The Niagara Escarpment rises above you. British reinforcements arriving here from Fort George in battle dress and exhausted from a double-quick march, struggled up the slope some distance to your right. While the Americans controlled Queenston Heights they were prevented from properly establishing their position by the harassment of 120 Indians under Chief John Norton. In the meantime regular British troops and Canadian militia were arriving from Fort George and other outposts under the direction of Major-General Roger Sheaffe. They climbed the heights of Queenston and assembled for the last battle."
The Decisive Battle (on the heights near Brock's monument)
"On the plateau before you, the British and Americans met for battle. The British formed a line to your right, the Americans to your left. General Sheaffe formed a British counter-offensive force of nine hundred men in a line shoulder to shoulder. The Americans were slightly greater in number but had not been reinforced with troops or arms since the arrival of the Indians. They had to meet the British with their backs to the river precipice. The British combined force advanced with fixed bayonets and with no route of escape available, the Americans were forced to surrender."
Brock's Monument - Queenston Heights Battlefield (on the wall around monument)
"The monument towering above you is a memorial to Major-General Isaac Brock, commander of British forces in Upper Canada at the beginning of the War of 1812. Brock died on the slopes below Queenston Heights on October 13, 1812, during an engagement between British and American forces. It was a battle that had great significance for Canada. This monument was constructed between 1853-56. It is 56 metres (185 ft) high and is constructed entirely of cut stone. Parks Canada maintains the monument as a national historic site."
Upper Canada (on Brock's Monument)
"Upper Canada has dedicated this monument to the memory of the late Major-General Isaac Brock, K.B. provisional lieutenant-governor and commander of the forces in the province whose remains are deposited in the vault beneath. Opposing the invading enemy he fell in action near these heights on 13 October 1812, in the forty-third year of his age. Revered and lamented by the people whom he governed and deplored by the sovereign to whose services his life had been devoted."
Inscription (inside monument)
"A monument was originally erected on this spot by a grant from the Parliament of this Province, and subsequently destroyed in the year 1840. The present monument was erected chiefly by the voluntary contributions of the militia and Indian warriors of this province, aided by a grant from the Legislature; authority for erecting the same being delegated to a committee consisting of the following gentlemen:
Sir Allan Napier McNab, Bart, Chairman
Sir John Beverley Robinson, Bart
Sir James Buchanan Macaulay, Knt
The Honourable Mr. Justice McClean
The Hon. Walter H. Dixon
The Hon. William Hamilton Merritt, M.P.P.
Colonel, the Hon. James Kirby
Thomas Clark Street, Esq.
David Thorburn, Esq.
Lieutenant Garrett, Late Fort-Ninth Regiment
Col. Robert Hamilton
Capt. H. Monroe, Secretary
T.G. Ridout, Esq. Treasurer
William Thomas, Architect
John Worthington, Builder"
Inscriptions (inside monument)
"In the vault underneath are deposited the mortal remains of the lamented Major-General Sir Isaac Brock K.B. who fell in action near these heights on the 13th October, 1812, and was entombed on 16th October at the bastion of Fort George, Niagara; removed from thence and re-interred under a monument to the eastward of this site on 13th October 1824 and in consequence of that monument having received irreparable damage by a lawless act on 17th April, 1840, it was found requisite to take down the former structure and erect this monument, the foundation stone being laid and the remains re-interred with due solemnity on the 13th October, 1853."
"In a vault beneath are deposited the mortal remains of Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, P.A.D.C. and aide-de-camp to the lamented Major-General Sir Isaac Brock K.B. who fell mortally wounded in the Battle of Queenston on the 13th October 1812, and died the following day. His remains were removed and re-interred with due solemnity on the 13th October, 1853."
The "Colored Corps" 1812-1815 (Queenston Heights near Brock's monument )
"When the War of 1812 began, people of African descent in the Niagara peninsula feared an American invasion. They were anxious to preserve their freedom and prove their loyalty to Britain. Many joined the militia; others offered to raise their own militia company. Authorities responded by forming a "Colored Corps" of about thirty men commanded by white officers. Based in the Niagara region throughout the war, it fought at Queenston Heights in October 1812 and at the siege of Fort George in May 1813. The corps was disbanded soon after the peace, but had nonetheless set a precedent. Black units were a feature of the Canadian military until the First World War. Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation"
Fort Drummond (Queenston Heights Park near wading pool )
"This small redoubt, or square fortification, and the U-shaped advance battery, named in honour of Sir Gordon Drummond, were built in the late spring of 1814 to defend the main Portage Road from Chippawa to Queenston. The earthworks enclosed a blockhouse which sheltered 100 men. After the British at the Battle of Chippawa, these men abandoned Fort Drummond and joined Major-General Riall's forces retiring to Fort George on 10 July 1814. For two weeks the fort and surrounding heights were held by American forces. When they retreated to Lundy's Lane, the British reoccupied Fort Drummond. Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Government of Canada" (text also in French)
Laura Ingersoll Secord (Monument to right of Queenston Heights Restaurant)
"This monument has been erected by the Government of Canada to Laura Ingersoll Secord who saved her husband's life in the battle of these heights October 13, 1812 and risked her own in conveying to Captain Fitzgibbon information by which he won the victory of Beaver Dams. Erected 1910."
"James Secord, United Empire Loyalists, Born July 7, 1773 Died February 22, 1841." (This memorial is constructed of Vermont granite with a bust in bronze and is 3.56 metres (twelve feet) high).
Brock's Monument (river side of Parkway across from main entrance to Queenston Heights Park)
"This 56 metre (184 ft) monument completed in 1856 commemorates Major-General Sir Isaac Brock's heroic death at the Battle of Queenston Heights October 13, 1812. Brock's statue is 6.1 metres (20 ft) high is sculpted in military fashion, right arm extended holding a baton, the left resting on his sword. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Lilac Garden (north of Floral Clock)
"Gift of American Rotarians New York State Rotary Clubs District 709 in Commemoration of the 100 Anniversary Founding of the Dominion of Canada 1867-1967 Rotary International"
Floral Clock (marker on Trail)
"The Floral Clock built by Ontario Hydro in 1950 and maintained by the gardeners of the Niagara Parks Commission requires 19,000 plants to cover the 12.2 metres (40 ft) diameter face. The stainless steel hour hand is 4.4 metres (14.5 ft) long, minute hand 5.4 metres (17.5 ft); second hand 6.4 metres (21.0 ft). It has Westminster chimes. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Sir Adam Beck Generating Station 1
"The first Beck 1 unit was commissioned on Christmas Day, 1921. The vertical turbine generator combination is similar to those used since in almost all hydraulic stations. Water provided by an open canal 20 km long from Chippawa above Niagara Falls is used to generate alternating current power with exceptionally high efficiency. Beck 1 was the largest hydraulic generating station in the world when completed by Ontario Hydro in 1930. The plant continues to operate today and can generate enough power to supply a small, modern city. Courtesy Ontario Hydro"
Lester B. Pearson (on grounds of the Niagara Parks School of Horticulture)
"This Maple Tree contributed by the Niagara Falls Branch, United Nations Associations in Canada in cooperation with the Niagara Parks Commission, commemorates the life and work of Lester Bowles Pearson, CC, OBE, MA, DCL 1897-1972. Prime Minister of Canada 1963-1968, President of the General Assembly, 1952, Nobel Peace Prize of 1957. As a remembrance for his services for peace in the world and the advancement of the welfare of people in every land. Dedicated on United Nations' Day, October 24, 1973."
Niagara Parks School of Horticulture
"The Niagara Parks School of Horticulture was established in 1936 on 40 hectares (100 acres) of land. It is the only known school of its kind in North America. Its graduate gardeners obtain positions in parks and in floriculture, horticulture, nursery and greenhouse enterprises in Canada and the United States. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission" (school opened July 26, 1936)
Niagara River Recreation Trail (plaque on stone on Trail at the south end of the School of Horticulture)
"This Trail which runs from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario was begun in 1986 by the Niagara Parks Commission. It is dedicated to the people of Niagara and to Niagara's visitors for their year-round enjoyment. This dedication was affirmed and witnessed by:
Pamela Verrill Walker, Chairman, Niagara Parks Commission
Hon. Hugh P. O'Neill, Minister of Tourism and Recreation
Hon. Vincent G. Kerrio, Minister of Natural Resources
Hon. Lily O. Munroe, Minister of Culture and Communications
June 24, 1988."
Niagara Glen (directly across from the Niagara Glen)
"The Falls of Niagara were here about 7000 to 8000 years ago. Three separate cataracts about .8 km (.5 miles) apart, fed only by drainage from Lake Erie. Then suddenly other lakes began to pour into Lake Erie thereby increasing the outflow to the river. This resulted in one cataract which eroded a wider gorge. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Thompson Point (river side across from Whirlpool Public Golf Course)
"This depression was the site in the early 1800s where John Thompson quarried the exposed limestone ridge at the edge of the gorge and processed it into agricultural lime. There were two lime kilns and a water-powered sawmill on the site which extended as far back as the ridge on which the Whirlpool Restaurant now stands. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Buried Railway Trestle and Buried Gorge (north of Whirlpool Road intersection)
"The cut stone markers are the ends of a buried steel trestle that carried tracks of the Niagara Falls Park and River Railway. It spanned the ravine created by Bowman's Creek which eroded the soft glacial debris of the buried gorge of an inter-glacial river. This buried gorge extends west 3.2 km (2 miles) to the Niagara Escarpment at St. David's. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Niagara Falls Park and River Railway (north of Whirlpool Road intersection)
"The Niagara River Recreation Trail at this point is laid along the former double-tracked roadbed of the Niagara Falls Park and River Railway from 1892 to 1932 before there was an auto route along the gorge. This electric railway carried millions of passengers from the boat docks at Queenston to Queen Victoria Park. Erected by The Niagara Parks Commission"
Niagara River Recreation Trail
"This Trail is provided and maintained through the earnings of The Niagara Parks Commission. The Commission is a self-funding agency of the Ontario Government dedicated to preserving and enhancing the beauty of the lands adjacent to the Niagara River for the enjoyment to its visitors. Pamela Verrill Walker, Chairman, The Niagara Parks Commission"
Whirlpool Rapids Gorge
"Ancient river predating the Wisconsin River flowed through the channel of the Whirlpool Rapids and the Whirlpool draining glacial Lake Erie. After the retreat of the glacier when the present river broke through the rock barriers at Thompson Point, it re-excavated the Whirlpool and the Whirlpool Rapids Gorge. Erected by the Niagara Parks Commission"
Niagara Spanish Aero Car (now re-named the Whirlpool Aero Car)
"Leonardo Torres Quevedo 1852-1936 was an ingenious Spanish engineer. Among his creations were algebraic machines, remote control devices, dirigibles, and the world's first computer. Niagara Spanish Aero Car was designed by Leonardo Torres Quevedo and represented a new type of aerial cable way that he called "transbordador". Officially opened on August 8, 1916 it is the only one of its kind in existence. The Niagara Parks Commission 1991."
International Historic Civil Engineering Site - The Niagara Spanish Aero Car (now re-named the Whirlpool Aero Car)
"A tribute to the distinguished Spanish Engineer who designed the Niagara Spanish Aero Car. This was only one of his many outstanding contributions to the engineering profession. Engineer Leonardo Torres Quevedo (1852-1936). Constructed 1914-1916. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering & Asociación de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos de España 2010."
QUEEN VICTORIA PARK, CITY OF NIAGARA FALLS
Sir Harry Oakes Bart
"This tablet commemorates the public spirit and generosity of Sir Harry Oakes Bart, who gave this land formerly occupied by the Clifton House to the people of the province of Ontario and made possible the erection of the Garden Theatre on this site by The Niagara Parks Commission as a place of public concourse. Work was commenced on the 9th day of September 1935 and was completed on the 18th day of September 1937."
Father Louis Hennepin
"Born about 1627, at Ath, Belgium, Hennepin entered a Recollect friary in his youth. An adventurous missionary, he visited many European countries and served as an army chaplain before sailing to New France in 1675. In 1679, Hennepin, as Chaplain of Lasalle's Mississippi expedition, made the journey in which he gathered the information for his "Description de la Louisiane". In it can be found some of the misrepresentations that mar some of Hennepin's work. Nevertheless, the book, published after his return to Europe in 1682, enjoyed widespread popularity. It contains valuable information on the geography and events of its period, and the first recorded description of Niagara Falls. Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board, Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario"
Zimmerman Fountain Pond (near Clifton Gate entrance )
"This beautiful fountain takes its name from Samuel Zimmerman who came to Canada from Pennsylvania in 1842. He amassed a fortune through a series of lucrative contracts involving the building of the second Welland Canal and various railway lines allowing him to begin construction of a large estate in what is now Queen Victoria Park. The estate was unfinished when he was killed in a railway accident in March of 1857. This fountain pond which dates back to 1856 is the last remaining remnant of his estate."
Sakura Cherry Trees (beside the Zimmerman Fountain)
"This Sakura a Japanese Flowering Cherry Tree one of 30 Prunus Sargentil "Rancho" and Prunus Xyedonesis "Akebono" varieties presented to the Niagara Parks Commission by the SAKURA COMMITTEE on behalf of the many generous donors to the SAKURA PROJECT as a symbol of friendship and goodwill between JAPAN and CANADA was planted by the Sakura Committee Chair HARA Satoshi Consul General of Japan in Toronto and Chairman Brian MERRETT Niagara Parks Commission Thursday April 26, 2001."
Burrell Hecock Memorial (Maid of the Mist Plaza top level Observation Deck )
"To the Memory of Burrell Hecock of Cleveland Ohio Aged 17 Years. Who lost his life in an heroic attempt to save the lifes of Mr. and Mrs. Eldridge Stanton of Toronto Ontario when the ice bridge in the gorge immediately below was swept down the Niagara River and into the Whirlpool Rapids, February 4th 1912."
Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse (Brass plaque on stone near Table Rock bus management )
"The Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse built on this site in 1892, was the first hydraulic powerhouse to use water from the Canadian side of the Niagara River. It generated 2300 hp of direct current electricity for the electric railway. Power generation ceased in 1832 and the building was demolished in 1985. Erected by the Niagara Parks Commission"
Table Rock (located near the entrance to Table Rock Center on the Falls side)
"You are visiting a site referred to as TABLE ROCK because of the flat rock overhang which was formed here. Continued erosion, however, caused it to fall into the water in 1850. Millions of visitors have travelled to this area since the early nineteenth century. Until 1885, this property was in private ownership, high fences restricted the view of the Falls, makeshift buildings scarred the area and visitors were often charged a fee for close-up viewing of the Falls. The Niagara Parks Commission was formed by the Government of Ontario in 1885 to preserve and enhance the natural beauty of the Falls for the enjoyment of visitors while generating sufficient income to be self-supporting. One of its first steps was to acquire this property. Substantial renovation has occurred at this site over the years to meet the needs of increasing numbers of visitors, most recently in 1990-91. Niagara Parks Commission, Chairman Pamela Verrill Walker, 1991"
Jose Maria Heredia (1803-1839) (Table Rock near the brink of the Falls )
"Cuban poet and patriot who sang to Niagara and as Jose Marti said, awakened "an ever-burning passion for freedom" in the hearts of all Cubans.
Thou flowest, on in quiet, till thy waves grow broken midst the rocks, thy current then shoots onward like the irresistible course of destiny. Ah, terribly the rage - the hoarse and rapid whirlpools there! My brain grows wild, my senses wander, as I gaze upon the hurrying waters, and my sight, vainly would follow, as toward the verge sweeps the wide torrent. Waves innumerable meet there and madden waves innumerable urge on and overtake the waves before, and disappear in thunder and in foam. They reach, they leap the barrier - the abyss swallows insatiable the sinking waves. A thousand rainbows arch then, and woods are deafened with the roar. What seeks my restless eye. Why are not here, about the jaws of this abyss, the palms - ah, the delicious palms - that on the plains of my own native Cuba spring and spread their thickly foliaged summits to the sun, and in the breathings of the ocean air wave soft beneath the heaven's unspotted blue. Hear, dread Niagara, my latest voice! Yet a few years, and the cold earth shall close over the bones of him who sings thee now. Thus feelingly, would that this, my humble verse, might be, like thee, immortal! I, meanwhile, cheerfully passing to the appointed rest, might raise my radiant forehead in the clouds to listen to the echoes of my fame. To the Niagara from the Cuban People, October 1989."
Niagara Falls A Sri Chinmoy International Peace Falls
"The Falls of Niagara joins hundreds of beautiful, significant and inspiring sites throughout the world which have been dedicated to the cause of peace and international friendship. With its thunderous majesty, Niagara reminds of the boundless energizing power of a higher force. Such will one day be the power of peace on earth. When human beings everywhere aspire and strive for peace based on love and the feeling of oneness, the cascading power of this peace will transform the fate of humanity. A Sri Chinmoy Peace Site is born of the spirit of oneness. It exists for one reason: to inspire a stronger sense of internationalism and fellowship among peoples in all countries. It takes its name from a man who has dedicated his life to this goal. Sri Chinmoy is an international ambassador of peace who has dedicated his life to the pursuit of world harmony and the fulfilment of the unlimited potential of the human spirit. Niagara Falls a spectacular natural wonder. World peace an unprecedented human achievement. The Niagara Parks Commission 1992."
The Niagara Parks Commission (Table Rock, Niagara Falls)
(Blue and Brass Plaque mounted to iron railing along river. Located to the right of the brink of the Falls.)
In 1885, the Province of Ontario established the Niagara Parks Commission as part of an international effort to preserve the natural scenery around Niagara Falls. Originally, the Commission included Colonel Casimir Gzowski, Chairman John W. Langmuir and J. Grant Macdonald, and was responsible for making the park-financing while keeping admission free to the public. The Commissioners acquired parkland along the river to create Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park, which opened on May 24, 1888. Beginning with a 62.2-hectare park, the commission has grown to administer a world famous, 1720-hectare park along the full length of the Niagara River, nationally and provincially significant historic sites, botanical gardens, a horticulture school and recreation areas, while remaining self-sufficient.